Archaeological Evidences of Pre-Flood Civilizations
Archaeology has unveiled the remnants of a past, glorious, pre-Flood civilization at various places throughout the earth. It has been conjectured by Archaeologists, Egyptologists and others that there could be a relationship between the megalithic and cyclopean stone structures in Egypt with those found in the Middle East, Northern Africa, Western Europe, England, Mexico, Easter Island, Central and South America and other parts of the world. There is an air of mystery that surrounds each of these regions as to the precise time in which they were constructed. Could they be contemporary? There is a similarity in the type of stone blocks. For example at Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, there are stone blocks that measure 36 feet by 7 feet and weigh up to 200 tons, yet their quarries are conjectured to be 30 or even 90 miles away. Some of these stone blocks are black volcanic andesite that are extremely heavy and hard. They would blunt our finest steel tools, yet no such tools for fashioning them have been found. The builders were still able to shape these stones to fit together to an accuracy of one fiftieth of an inch. Was this all accomplished by the carving and hoisting method or is it possible that the art of stone casting was known world wide and that these people did have ways of communicating? Is it also possible that the highly polished stone tools that characterize the Neolithic age may have been made synthetically by Man? Future detailed scientific research should give additional answers to many of these mysteries.
It would appear that there was also a similarity in climate change throughout the earth. During the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) Period, the people were essentially nomadic food gatherers and hunters. They lived off the land. In North Africa, Egypt, Europe, the Middle East as well as in North and South America the climate was moist, warm and favorable for the growth of lush vegetation and abundant animal life. The climate gradually became drier, the desert areas began to expand. People were forced to congregate towards lakes, oases, rivers and shoreline areas where water was more plentiful. This resulted in dramatic advancements in agriculture in order to feed the growing populations. This led to industrial development, city growth, better communication and eventually to the construction of cyclopean and megalithic structures. Thus, a progressive development appeared worldwide from the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) to the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) to the Neolithic (New Stone Age). There are now strong scientific evidences that it was the worldwide Flood of Noah that abruptly terminated this great Stone Age Period.
We will begin our study with Northern Africa where the above transition is so very evident, then to other parts of the world in an attempt to unravel the ancient mysteries associated with a by-gone glorious worldwide civilization. This paper attempts to relate some of the cyclopean and megalithic stone structures to the pre Flood age, stating reasons why this is a reasonable assumption.
Cyclopean Structures in North Africa
Map of North Africa
There is a remarkable relationship that exists between the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic ages of the Egyptian Type Section with that of Northern Africa. Certain cyclopean structures in Lybia are believed to be of Neolithic age. James Howard Wellard 3 describes the time when the vast Sahara Desert was a moist region of forests and grasslands. It was then that the early hunters and food gatherers inhabited vast areas of Northern Africa. As the climate became more arid, these hunters were forced to migrate to areas along the coastal regions of the Mediterranean and into Egypt where there was a more plentiful source of water. Archeologists have found immense networks of underground tunnels and foggares. This indicated that the people developed a more settled agricultural style of life. The people built cyclopean walls and tens of thousands of rock tombs and burial mounds have been found. This age is characteristic of the Neolithic and has a remarkable similarity to that of Egypt. Wellard says, "Cyclopean stone structures are present in northern Africa that date back to early times." He describes some of the archaeological evidences found in Libya and in the Sahara desert region, "On rock faces in many parts of the Sahara Desert unknown artists have depicted life as they see it, from prehistoric times up to the present, representing 10,000 years of continuous history. The oldest of these engravings are ascribed to the `Hunters' who lived in the Sahara when the desert was forested and inhabited by elephants, giraffes, and aquatic animals." Wellard goes on to say, "The same aura of mystery surrounds the descendants of the Hunters those people who built the `cyclopean' walls which still guard the western approaches to the summit of Zenkekra, and the tens of thousands of rock tombs, or burial mounds, which litter the side of the valley. Their presence indicates a sizeable empire; and if we ascribe to them the immense network of underground tunnels called foggares, it indicates, too, a people of a settled agricultural way of life in contrast to the Hunters who lived by the bow and arrow." 4
Figure 1, the History of Man chart, bears a remarkable compatibility to northern Africa. The Anathermal Age is characterized by moist humid conditions worldwide. It was not until the beginning of the Altithermal Age that the modern desert regions began to grow. The climate worldwide slowly became less moist. As the desert regions expanded, the people were forced to leave their more easy hunting and food gathering style of life to a more settled style. In the latter half of the Altithermal Age great advances were made in animal husbandry, agriculture, ranching. City growth encouraged animal husbandry, ranching, dairy farms and more sophisticated forms of industrial and mining development. This led into the manufacture of highly polished stone tools, copper tools, and the art of stone casting that resulted in the construction of cyclopean and megalithic stone complex structures. The boat / naval industry would have resulted in communications on a worldwide basis similar to our present age, however, not quite as sophisticated. What took place in the Middle East and Africa was also taking place in America and other parts of the world. The Altithermal Age came to an abrupt termination throughout the earth by Noah's Flood (see Figure 1).
The climate changes that were advocated by an American geologist, Raphael Pumpelly in 1904 compliment the changes that took place in Northern Africa. He formulated what has become known as the "Oasis Theory of Agricultural Origins." Two prominent geologists from Columbia University Ryan and Pitman say, "For over seventy years Pumpelly traveled throughout China and Mongolia describing landforms and mapping rock formations. In 1904 near Ashkhad on the fringe of the Kara Kum desert east of the Caspian Sea in what later became Turkestan, Pumpelly uncovered signs of early farming at the edge of an oasis. Throughout his extensive travel he had noted that the climate in central Asia had become significantly drier in the wake of the last Ice Age. He wondered whether during this desiccation Stone Age hunters and gatherers had found themselves clustered together around the edges of the remaining water holes along with wild animals and plants. Perhaps in order to conquer new means of support these people took the crucial cultural leap leading to the genetic manipulation of plants and animals called domestication." 5
Ryan and Pitman describe the life of Vere Gordon Childe who some have proclaimed as the greatest pre-historian in Britain and probably the world. In 1946, he was appointed as Director of the Institute of Archaeology at the University of London. In 1926, he began a field study of the archaeological sites along the Danube River valley in Hungary and Yugoslavia toward the Black Sea region. He studied the Vinca culture which is now believed to be of Neolithic age. Childe observed that traders, prospectors, and primitive metallurgists had set up towns, and villages to support the mining of gold, copper and tin for export to the Near East. He was impressed by the pins, earrings and daggers with artistic style that reminded him of Palestinian and Asian handiwork. He noted Mediterranean seashells among the artifacts in Vinca graves. He observed that the Vinca people possessed a wide spectrum of natural resources to attract homesteaders whose farms were always near abundant water supplies. 5
With respect to Childe's view of the origin of farming, Ryan and Pitman quote a portion of Childe's book The Danube in Prehistory as follows, "A revolution whereby man ceased to be purely a parasite and … became a creator emancipated from the whims of his environment." 6 In other words, Childe supported Pumpelly conclusions with respect to the "Oasis Theory" that as the climate became more arid, the nomadic hunters and food gatherers began to gather together for survival purposes around oases or lakes where there was a plentiful supply of game, plants and water. This led to an agricultural and industrial revolution that characterizes the Vinca culture and civilization in Europe. In other words, the climate changes in the Danube region were similar to climate changes in northern Africa, Egypt, the Middle East and in other regions of Asia. The Oasis Theory also compliments the climate changes that characterize the Altithermal Age in Canada and in Europe as advocated by Pleistocene geologists.
The Pyramids of Egypt
The great pyramids of Giza located just south of present day Cairo.
The Great Pyramids of Egypt are striking remnants of a great Stone Age Civilization. There are about 75 pyramids in number representing mainly the Old Kingdom Age. They extend for a distance of about 25 miles from north to south. They occur in several groups on the west side of the Nile River. Only the pyramids associated with the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Dynasties of the Old Kingdom Age are believed to be pre-Flood (see Figure 3).
The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the largest pyramid and represents the peak in engineering design. Sir Flanders Petrie said, "It's the greatest and most accurate structure the world has ever seen." 7 It covers a space of 13 acres. Its base forms a square, each side of which was originally 768 feet, though now, by the removal of the outer casing, it is only 9iik750 feet. The outer surface now forms a series of steps, each with an average height of 3 feet or more. Its height was originally 481 feet, and is now 450 feet. It contains approximately 2.6 million building blocks each weighing from 2 to 70 tons.
The Great Pyramid is said to contain about 2,600,000 carefully cut blocks of limestone, ranging in weight from 2 to 70 tons each. They fit together with extreme precision. There are two major methods suggested to explain its construction. The first is the carving and hoisting method, the second is the casting method.
Egyptologists who subscribe to "The Carving and Hoisting Method" believe each block was quarried, dressed, transported, and fitted very closely together. It is believed that the stone blocks were cut from a quarry 12 miles to the east, floated across the Nile during inundations, and then drawn up long sloping earthen construction ramps by large gangs of men tugging at ropes, raised and brought into place by means of wedges driven alternately on one side and then the other on platforms with cradle like bottoms. It is said to have required 1,100,000 men 10 years to build the causeway, and another 20 years to build the pyramid itself; all in forced labor: working classes and slaves, driven under the pitiless lash of the task master. 8
The Casting Method was proposed and elaborated upon by Davidovits.9 He proposes the revolutionary Casting Theory or Agglomeration Concept that each pyramid stone was cast in place as a type of manmade concrete. The Authors give credit to a French chemist, metallurgist and ceramist Henry Le Chatelier (1850 - 1936), who was the first to discover that the ancient Egyptians produced manmade stone and made stone vessels, jewelery and tools. Davidovits as a biochemist, was the first person to reproduce the synthetic pyramid stone and to apply the technology to the construction theory. As Davidovits and Morris point out, there are many theories of construction and they are all based on the carving and hoisting theory, but none solves the irreconcilable problems. For instance, with flint stone and copper tools, how did they make the pyramid face absolutely flat? How did they make the faces meet at a perfect point at the summit? How did they make the tiers so level? How could the required number of workers maneuver on the building site? How did they make the blocks so uniform, and some of the heavier blocks were placed at great heights? How was this all done in about 20 years?
Davidovits says "Only the casting theory instantly dissolve all of the logistical and other problems. The casing blocks each weigh about 10 tons and are clearly the product of stone casting. Joints between the casing blocks are barely detectable, fitting as close as 0.002 inch according to Petries' measurements. They are smooth and of such fine quality that they have been mistaken for light-gray granite." 10
In the Great Pyramid, hundreds of blocks that make up the core masonry weigh 20 tons or more and are found at the level of the Grand Gallery and higher. Each block fits together with remarkable precision, so that one cannot fit a razor blade between them. Davidovits and Morris say "With chemistry, the task of pyramid construction was easily accomplished with the tools of the Pyramidal Age. No carving or hoisting was required. The implements needed were simply those used to lay sun-dried mud bricks, a hoe to scrape up fossil shell limestone, a basket to transport ingredients, a trough in which to prepare ingredients, a ladder, a square, a plumb line, a builder's trawl, and wooden molds." 11
The complex of stone monuments and temple structure in front of Khafra's Pyramid are the most well preserved of the Giza Group. In the Valley Temple south of the Great Sphinx are two levels that are made of blocks weighing 50 to 80 tons a piece and assembled with tongue-and-groove joints. Some of these blocks weigh up to 500 tons. Mortar joins the different blocks. Inside the Valley Temple are granite blocks in perfect condition exhibiting the fabulous jigsaw joints which go around corners. This supports the use of cast stone. I, personally, had the privilege of examining these temple complexes.
The power of kings to build great pyramids began to dissipate after the 4th Dynasty. Still the times were prosperous, and the period is not characterized by war, but by a revolution in art and literature. Trade flourished and Egypt had a fleet of ships in the Mediterranean. Davidovits believes the building decline may have been also caused by a depletion of mineral resources. 12 It would appear that the Pharaoh's from the 4th, 5th and 6th Dynasties were more interested in trade and commerce than in pyramid building. The fleet of ships and the development of improved vessels would have contributed to the advancement of knowledge, communication and science throughout the world.
By the 6th Dynasty, Egypt was less powerful and the power of the kings seems no longer to have been absolute. The pharaohs seemed to concentrate their attention more on foreign expeditions and enterprises.
Pepi II was the last great Pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty and the Old Kingdom. He reigned for 94 years, the longest reign of any pharaoh in history. His pyramid was built better than most of this period, and it is relatively well preserved. Davidovits says, "Within a few years after his death, Egypt was no longer a united nation. The country was in a state of anarchy, lasting more than 200 years. Political and social revolution and High Mortality rates characterize the epoch. Having no proof, scholars speculate that the fall of the Old Kingdom was from long and continuous governmental mismanagement. Some scholars conjecture that erratic changes in climate produced food shortages against which the kings were powerless." 1
It is possible that the world wide Flood of Noah was responsible for the sudden destruction of the Old Kingdom Age (see Figure 3). This would explain the high mortality rates, and the state of anarchy chaos, and confusion. As the powerful tsunami type Flood Waters swept across Egypt it would explain why many of the funerary complexes and Valley Temples were in many cases completely buried by gravel, sand and silt, and why the Queen's chamber in the Great Pyramid was encrusted with salt on the walls so much as half an inch thick, when it was entered for the first time. Tompkins says, "The walls of the Queen's chamber are unblemished limestone blocks, beautifully finished, but early explorers found them mysteriously encrusted with salt as much as one-half inch thick." 13
During the First Intermediate Age Social disruption and upheaval persisted from the 7th to the 10th Dynasties. Monuments built during this era were sparse and were made of poor quality material. Buildings never stood higher that 30 feet and most were left unfinished or have perished. Pottery replaced stone, metal and faience in vessels.
It is evident that the Neolithic Age was well on its way prior to the commencement of the First Dynasty. Davidovits & Morris say, "During this (prehistoric) era, hard stone vessels made of slate, metamorphic schist, diorite and basalt first appeared. All but indestructible, these items are among the most unusual and enigmatic of the ancient world. In a latter era, 30,000 such vessels were placed in an underground chamber of the First Pyramid of the Third Dynasty Step Pyramid of Saqqara." 14 All these vessels have a smooth, glossy, polished appearance and bear no trace of tool marks. They are considered the most beautiful of all fine stone objects. These high quality, polished vessels were not made in Egypt after the Neolithic Age.
The Flood could very well explain the dramatic shift in religious deities at the end of the Old Kingdom Age. During the Old Kingdom Age, the people worshipped the great god Khnum at the ancient capital of Memphis near present day Cairo. A new god Amun was introduced after the Old Kingdom Age. The Pharaohs and people began worshipping the god Amun and their capital city was established at Thebes or present day Luxor and Karnak about 190 kilometers to the south. These factors show a distinct cultural discontinuity of history from the Old Kingdom Age to the First Intermediate and later Egyptian Ages.
The cyclopean and megalithic structures that characterize the (Neolithic) Old Kingdom Age in Egypt are described in Newsletter vol.10, no.2, and in greater detail in an article entitled, "Early Egyptian History" at www.gira.ca. These cyclopean pyramids and associated temple structures in Egypt that relate to the Old Kingdom Age bear remarkable similarities to other cyclopean and megalithic structures throughout the world.
The Newsletter Vol. 12, No. 2 at www.gira.ca relates the geology, archaeology and anthropology of East Africa to the Egyptian Type Section. There is also a remarkable relationship that exists between the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic ages of the Egyptian Type Section with the region of Mesopotamia, the Middle East, Europe, Asia and northern Africa. The scientific evidences give strong support that Noah's Flood was a real event that was responsible for abruptly terminating the Neolithic age in Egypt about 4,500 years ago (Figure 2).
The Middle East
A similar abrupt change took place in the Middle East at the very same time. Halley 15 describes the Flood deposits that are present at the ancient cities of Ur, Fara, Kish and Ninevah that consist of a black layer of clay and silt separating the pre-Flood and the post-Flood cultures. Above this flood layer is found the Jamdat Nasr or Early Sumerian cultures, whereas below are the highly decorated pottery of the Al-Ubad cultures of Neolithic Age. Halley describes the findings of Dr. Stephen Langdon's Field Museum-Ozford University Joint Expedition in 1928-29 as follows: "A bed of clean water-laid clay, in the lower strata of the ruins of Kish, 5 feet thick, indicates a flood of vast proportions. It contains no objects of any kind. Dr. Langdon suggested that it may have been the Flood mentioned in the Bible. Underneath it the relics represented an entirely different type of culture. Among the relics found was a four-wheeled chariot, the wheels made of wood and copper nails, with the skeletons of the animals that drew it lying between the shaft." 16
Obviously, the Flood came in suddenly bringing about an abrupt termination of this former Neolithic, Mesopotamian civilization. Halley describes some of the relics of the pre-Flood cities in the Middle East as follows: "painted pottery, flint implements, tools of obsidian, turquoise vases, copper axes, copper mirrors, hoes, sickles, various implements of stone, flint, quartz, fish hooks, models of boats, an underground kiln, specimens of the most beautiful vitrified pottery, cosmetics which pre-historic women used for darkening their eyebrows and eyelids, brick ruins of temples painted red or covered with plaster, pottery artistically painted in intricate geometric patterns and figures of birds, even a chariot and architectural accomplishments that indicate an astonishingly advanced civilization." 17 Many of these relics and tools are very similar to the ones found in Egypt as part of the Old Kingdom and Early Dynastic Ages. It is obvious that the pre-Flood people in the Middle East and in Egypt were both experiencing an advanced form of civilization when it was abruptly terminated. There are no indications of invading forces in either case, but they were suddenly destroyed by a climate change. A flood of great proportions such as Noah's Flood would explain its sudden termination (see Newsletter vol. 10, no.1).
Terrace of Baalbek, Damascus
North of Damascus in eastern Lebanon lies the Terrace of Baalbek. It is a platform which consists of three massive megalithic blocks. Each block weighs 750 tons and are 65 x 12 x 15 feet in size. The Temple of Jupiter is constructed upon this platform. There is a fourth block in a nearby quarry that is perfectly cut and is believed to weigh nearly 2000 tons. Archaeologists do not know its origin.
Davidovits & Morris describe the ancient outer wall of the acropolis at Baalbek saying, "Three blocks are so large that they have acquired their own name, "the trilithon." Each of these blocks measured sixty-four feet long and thirteen feet wide. Estimated to weigh 1200 tons apiece, they are situated in the wall at a height of twenty-five feet above the ground. It is estimated that it would require the force of 25,000 men to raise these stones. The placement of the trilithon has puzzled the most expert engineers. In the temple of Jupiter at the site, one of the huge stones weighs 2000 tons." 18 It is possible that these cyclopean stones were cast in place by the casting method. The Terrace of Baalbek is a remnant of the Great Stone Age Period. It is believed relate to the Neolithic Age.
Monuments in the Americas
Numerous gigantic pyramidal stone structures are present in Mexico, the Yucatan, Central America and parts of South America. Some of these cyclopean and megalithic structures are of similar size and shape to the pyramids of Egypt and would appear to be pre Flood in origin.
Some of the smaller structures that are built of baked clay bricks may relate to the ziggurats that were built after the Flood by the Sumerian and Babylonian people, and may be post Flood in origin. The people could have benefited from their experience in helping construct the Tower of Babel prior to their dispersion. The Tower of Babel was constructed with baked clay bricks. We read, "They said to each other, come let us make bricks and bake them thoroughly. They used brick instead of stone, and tar instead of mortar" (Genesis 11:3 NIV).
Teotihuacan and Chulula, Mexico
Teotihuacan, the city of the gods, is located just to the northeast of Mexico City. According to legend it was built during the Second Age, Tlachitonatiuh (Earth Sun), by a race of Giants, the Quinanatzin, in the days of Atlantis. After the cataclysm, Atlantian survivors in the Mexican colony were conquered by the Olmecs, who inhabited this great city under the beneficent rule of Quetzalcoatl. 19
The largest Pyramid at Teotihuacan is the Pyramid of the Sun. It measures 760 feet by 720 feet at its base, rising to a height of 220 feet. It is comparable in size at the base to the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), but is only half as high. A temple at the top at one time housed a colossal statue of the god with a breast plate of gold. The Pyramid of the Moon is only slightly smaller. I had the privilege of climbing this pyramid.
The Pyramid of Cholula is located 60 miles southeast of Mexico City. The pyramid measures 1400 feet on each side, is more than 210 feet high and covers 42 acres. It is a colossal structure consisting of millions of bricks, and is more than twice as big at the base as the Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) in Egypt. There is an air of mystery as to the origin of Teotihuacan. Raymond Drake 20 relates how archaeologists have conjured diverse theories dating the construction of Teotihuacan as 6000 BC, 1500 BC, or 600 BC. It is possible that the Pyramids of Teotihuacan and Cholula were contemporary and were built just prior to the Flood of Noah about 4500 to 5000 years before the present. It is possible that the architecture and construction may have been master minded by the pre Flood Biblical Nephilim.
Plateau of Marcahuasi, Peru
High in the Andes Mountains of Peru, not far from Nazca, on the plateau of Marcahuasi, Raymond Drake reports, "Dr. Daniel Ruzo in 1952 discovered a most remarkable assemblage of giant sculptures representing human beings, animals, and birds, notably a lion and several condors, symbols of the Sun God. Many of the figures are only prominent when viewed from a certain angle, particularly in the sunlight. Two altars twelve feet high suggest that the prehistoric builders must have been Giants, perhaps those Giant Gods who, according to the Hunaca Indian legends, dwelt in the high places. Many carvings depict camels, lions, elephants, penguins, which as far as is known never existed in South America. Daniel Ruzo proved that they had been made by giants 12 feet tall . . . Like the statues on Easter Island, they radiate an aura of transcendent wisdom akin to the Sphinx." 21 According to geology, these prehistoric animals such as the camel, lion, elephant were present throughout all North and South America prior to about 4,500 years ago. These so called giants could relate to the pre Flood Nephilim. The carvings of prehistoric animals like the camel, lion and elephant would imply a pre Flood origin.
The megalithic ruins of the ancient city of Tiahuanaco is perched high in the Andes Mountains of Bolivia about 12,300 feet above sea level. It is located about 12 miles from Lake Titicaca, which interestingly has salty water, and the region abounds with salt deserts. These could be remnants of the salty waters of the Flood. Drake reports, "All the buildings still show impressive grandeur in size and conception. The fortress of Akapana, an immense truncated Pyramid, rears 170 feet in height from a base about 650 by 600 feet. The Temple of the Sun, the Kalasasaya, measure about 440 by 390 feet, and the Palace of the Sarcophagi 220 by 180 feet; the ruins of the Tunca Punku or Place of the Ten Doors form an artificial mound about 50 feet in height and 200 feet square. Such cyclopean structures would present problems even for our own technicians today; many huge stone slabs measure 36 by 7 feet and weigh 200 tons, yet the nearest quarries may have been thirty, even ninety miles away . . . Portrait heads of the great man unearthed there show high foreheads, open faces, bold profiles, energetic chins. Powerful personalities still impressive from the solid rock, challenging time, like the Sphinx they stare beyond our tiny world out to the stars." 22 The Gateway to the Sun is the entrance to the Sun Temple. It is cut out of one gigantic slab of greenish grey andesite, a very hard igneous rock. The Sun Door stands about 10 feet high by 12 feet wide and 1 foot thick. It weighs about 10 tons. The massive portal is engraved with 107 symbols of winged figures, heads of humans, condors, pumas, and the now extinct toxodants. These toxodants were present in South America prior to about 4,500 years ago.
The great city of Tiahuanaco flourished in splendour. Its glory was suddenly shattered by volcanic eruptions and floods. 23 It is possible that the Flood of Noah may have been responsible for this destruction. Is it possible that they had the knowledge of casting stone as in Egypt and that there was communication among the Old and New World people?
Anakena hats, Easter Island (Rapa Nui) Anakena site.
About 300 miles westward from the coast of Peru is Easter Island. Here are located several hundred colossal statues carved out of hard volcanic rock. They are between 10 and 66 feet high, and weigh as much as 50 tons. Originally they wore hats that weighed more than 10 tons each. The eyes of these statues radiate an aura of transcendent wisdom and eeriness akin to the Sphinx.
Recent excavations have discovered hidden caves containing decayed remains of tablets, wooden images, and small wooden sculptures. The tablets are covered with finely carved and stylized figures, which seem to be a form of picture writing. To date no one has been able to translate any of the tablets, and no satisfactory method of interpreting the symbols has been found.
Who could have constructed these megalithic, gigantic statues? Is there a connection between the gigantic statues in Peru and these on Easter Island? Could they have been built by the strange nephilim that lived on the earth during the 120 year period prior to the Flood? However we interpret these stone statues, one conclusion can be made, that is, they belong to the Great Stone Age period.
European Stone Monuments
Great stone monuments dating back to prehistoric times are scattered along the coastal areas of western Europe, some on nearby sea islands, and a few inland (in Great Britain in particular). It is estimated that 40,000 to 50,000 of these monuments occur in major prehistoric sites along the west coasts of Malta, Spain, France, the British Isles and Scandinavia. The most popular is the megalithic gray rocks of the Carnac menhirs in France, and Stonehenge in Britain. Many of these giant rocks weigh many tons and make up the menhirs, dolmens, passage graves, the alignments, and the circles, all of which were carefully put into place by Neolithic Man.
The constructions are variously referred to as cyclopean and megalithic. According to Stern, ``Cyclopean structures are built by placing very large stones on top of one another very much as bricks are laid, whereas the essentials of megalithic construction are either the single large slab or the large slab as walling stone with another slab resting on two or more large walling stones as a capstone, a sort of house of cards architecture.'' 24
Menhirs of Carnac, France
Along the western coast of Brittany, France at and near Carnac are thousands of large megalithic rocks placed in long parallel rows that run for miles. The individual stones often are graduated in size, with the largest ones placed nearest to the culminating point of the alignment. These individual giant rocks are often referred to as ``menhirs,'' and are usually long, slender stones standing on end. A few have been roughly shaped, some even have been carved, but most of them are natural rocks that were brought to the site where they were given special significance by their location and their spatial relationship to one another.
The largest of all the menhirs was nearly 70 feet high. It was called the Breton giant of Locmariaquer. However, it fell centuries ago and broke into five huge pieces when it hit the ground. Scattered among the thousands of menhirs in Brittany are dolmens, which consist of a large capstone supported by walled rocks together with other megalithic monuments.
Men who have analyzed the megaliths at the various prehistoric sites in Western Europe have found similarities in the rock carvings as well as the types of pottery. This would indicate that the people communicated to each other from place to place. Stern describes the time when these megalithic structures were possibly constructed, "Since the megalithic monuments were built after men had learned how to make utensils out of baked clay, shards and even some unbroken vessels have helped to date and trace the origins, affiliations, and trade routes of the men who brought foreign-made pottery into Europe. And since the monuments continued to be built well into the period when copper and bronze implements came into use, the megaliths bridge the long span of time between the Stone Age and the Age of Metals." 25 This description of history would fall into the Neolithic Age and would be contemporary with the Thinite and the Old Kingdom Age in Egypt.
The Stonehenges, England
Stonehenge. Photo by Ian Britton
Stonehenge in Somerset, England is a circle of huge stones, some of which weigh over 50 tons. According to Gaverluk and Hamm 26 each stone was cut and shaped to the size required to relate to the total structure. The main feature of the monument is a circular trench 400 feet in diameter. Inside this circle was a rectangle with the four station stones imbedded in the circle itself. The longer sides of this rectangle faced the northwest, where, through a portico some 200 feet away, could be seen the 18.5 foot heel stone. If Stonehenge were built 30 miles north or south of its present latitude, then the position of the station stones would no longer have formed a perfect rectangle in relation to the observations and the heel stone. It was possible for these ancient people to make predictions of solar and lunar eclipses through the arrangement of the stones in Stonehenge I and III. There is actually more than one circle of huge stones at various locations in England. They are collectively referred to as Stonehenge.
At one time it was believed the Druids were responsible for their construction, but now their origin is believed to be much older. Archaeologists are now saying that the Stonehenge people are of Mesolithic and Neolithic in age. Is it possible that the Stonehenges are contemporary with the Menhirs of France and to the Egyptian "Old Kingdom Age?" They would then be classified as pre-Flood.
Neolithic Metal Mines in Eurpoe, Asia, and the Middle East
Several copper mines have been found in Europe, Western Asia, and the Middle East that date back to the copper and Neolithic ages or to pre Flood times. Deposits of copper ore were mined at an early date by open pit at Ai Bunar in Bulgaria, also at Chinflon in Spain, at Mount Gabriel in Ireland, and at Mitterburg in Austria. In the Veshnoveh area of Iran, an ancient copper mining site was found with galleries 40 metres (131 feet) long. In most of these ancient mines the miners worked with the same kind of stone mauls that were found at Rudna Glava, Yugoslavia which were characteristic of the Neolithic Age.
Rudna Glava Copper Mine
One of the oldest known copper mines was found at Rudna Glava, Yugoslavia. During the 1900's open pit operations revealed older mine shafts that date back to Neolithic times. It was found that Early Man mined horizontally for flint bearing strata and dug vertical shafts up to 66 feet vertically to recover copper ore veins. The basic tool of excavation was a stone maul. It is believed they heated the rock, then threw water on to break it. Many pottery vessels were found. Their culture is named Vinca and it is late Neolithic. Archaeological findings throughout the Balkans indicate that these people were active in manufacturing copper tools, weapons, ornaments, copper axes and chisels. 27 In view of the fact that this early mining development was of Neolithic Age would imply that it is pre-Flood.
Copper Mountain in Oman, Saudi Arabia
Along the west coast of the Gulf of Oman is an ancient copper mine that dates back to Sumerian times. Sumerian records speak about "Magan," the distant copper mountains from which shiploads of coveted metal were brought home by way of Ditmun. Heyerdahl visited this site in 1977 as he sailed his reed ship from ancient Sumer in the Persian Gulf to Pakistan, then westward through the Gulf of Aden to Djibouti, Africa. He met with Dr. Costa, Oman's archaeological adviser to examine the remains of a structure somewhat similar to a Sumerian Ziggurat. Between the structure and nearby mountains was the site that had been mined for thousands of years. Heyerdahl reports, "The terrain between us and the mountains was strewn with unmistakable evidence of a copper mine. Slag carpeted the ground everywhere. It seemed a nearby mountain had been razed, and all that remained of a more distant one was a monumental stone arch, testimony to the entrance of some long ago mine shaft. Copper's importance to a Bronze Age society can hardly be overestimated, and it is little wonder that Magan was so highly regarded by Sumerians. Magan and modern Oman would seem to be one and the same." 28 (p. 825)
Sumer is the first civilization to emerge after the Flood. It is characterized by the building of ziggurats. The Bible says that Noah and his family settled in the land of Shinar, which is in the region of Sumer. The world's population had to increase from a total of eight persons. Thus it would have taken years before the world's population would have been large enough to begin large scale mining operations at Magan (Oman). It is possible that this mining centre was flourishing as an industry prior to the Flood. In all likelihood, Noah and his family would have known about this rich copper site.
Medzamor, Soviet Armenia
One of the oldest metallurgical mines in the world was recently discovered at Medzamor in Soviet Armenia. Charroux says, "Dr. Koriun Meguerchian has discovered the oldest metallurgical factory in the world. Experts have established that it was built 5000 years ago. At Medzamor, vases and objects made of all the common metals have been found. knives, spearheads, arrowheads, clasps, rings, bracelets, etc. The foundry had a series of vats, hollowed out of rock, in which ore was crushed, pounded, washed, refined, and enriched until pure metal was obtained. Twenty five furnaces have been uncovered, but more than two hundred are thought to be still buried. Medzamor was an industrial centre of the period derisively called the Neolithic. Craftsmen worked with copper, bronze, lead, zinc, iron, gold, tin, arsenic, antimony, manganese, and also steel tweezers, slender and shiny have been found. Fourteen varieties of bronze were smelted in the plant and used for different purposes." 29 (Charroux, p. 64)
This discovery has been verified by scientific organizations in the Soviet Union, the United States, France, Britain and Germany. This metallurgical factory may have been in full operation during the 120 years prior to the Flood. However, bronze is a combination of copper and tin. This would place the age of this mine into the post Flood age. It would equate to the Middle Kingdom Age of Egypt which would date to about 2040 to 1876 BC. Is it possible this was a true pre-Flood Neolithic site where its people had already discovered the art of smelting copper and tin together to get bronze? It also appears as if these Neolithic people had already entered the iron age. Future research will possibly unlock this mystery.
Archaeology has confirmed that Man entered the metal age during the Neolithic age in Europe, Asia Minor, and the Middle East. It is contended here that the Flood of Noah brought the Neolithic age to a sudden and dramatic close. This, therefore, confirms the Biblical thesis that man had entered the metal age prior to the Flood for we read, "Zillah also had a son, Tubal Cain, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron" (Genesis 4:22 NIV). The Hebrew word for bronze denotes both pure copper and or bronze. This definition would be in compliance with the copper tools of the Neolithic Age. The Iron Age is considered by archaeologists to be much later and would equate with the Egyptian Intermediate age (see Figure 2). The Hebrew word here could mean iron or metal. However, the Neolithic Vinca people who lived along the Danube River in Europe supported the mining of gold, copper and tin for export to the Near East. Vere Childe, a famous British pre-historian and archaeologist, was impressed by the pins, earrings and daggers with artistic style that reminded him of Palestinian and Asian handiwork. The oldest metallurgical mine in the world was discovered at Medzamor in Soviet Armenia. It is believed to be of Neolithic age. At this mine, craftsamen worked with copper, bronze, lead, zinc, iron, gold, tin, arsenic, antimony and manganese.
It is hereby postulated that Noah's Flood brought the Neolithic Great Stone Age to a sudden close on a worldwide basis. The colossal and cyclopean stone structures and pyramids in different parts of the world are believed to have been constructed during the last 400 plus years before the Flood. Is it possible that the Nephilim of the Bible may have been involved in the planning and construction of these cyclopean and megalithic structures? The assumption is sometimes made that only people with supernatural strength and power could possibly have moved many of the boulders which literally weigh many tons, some exceeding 100 or 200 tons. Is it possible that these gigantic stones may have been cast in place as they were in Egypt? Therefore, it would not have required supernatural strength.
The Bible implies that the world experienced a population explosion prior to the Flood. We read in Genesis 6:1-2, "When men began to increase in numbers on the earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that they were beautiful and they married any of them they chose." From the sciences of archaeology and anthropology we can assume that large concentrations of people lived in Central and South America, Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East and Egypt at the time these large structures were constructed. It is estimated that millions of people were required to construct the pyramids of Egypt and America, thus the logical time for the pyramids to have been built would have been prior to the Flood. After the Flood the earth's population remained relatively small for many centuries, therefore there would not have been sufficient people to construct these great colossal structures.
It is concluded that the Egyptian Type Section (Figure 2) applies to all of Africa, Europe, Asia and also to North and South America for the following reasons:
Jesus Christ made a most interesting statement. We read, "As it was in the days of Noah, so shall it be at the coming of the Son of Man" (Mathew 24:37 NIV). In other words, events that took place prior to the Flood of Noah will be duplicated prior to His second coming.
1. Halley, Henry H., "Halley's Bible Handbook," Zondervan publishing
House, Grand Rapids, USA, 1965, p. 542